COAL AIR SEPARATION PLANT

Overview

ARIA Coal separation plants are innovative machines which enable separation of coal with rock and other impurities based on density difference using only air. Conventionally coal separation is carried out in DMS plants using water however ARIA coal separation plants are completely dry and can be customized to give production rates of 250 tons per hour.

For higher production requirements multiple modules of 250 tons per hour are installed adjacent to each other.

These Aria separation plants are installed inline with jaw crushers after vibration screens separating fines and coarse raw material. The ideal coarse input of 50 to 75 mm is separated with an efficiency of more than 94%. 15 to 30 mm fines are separated with an accuracy of 96 % and above. The discard is further transported to the discard collection silos and the middling’s are returned back to the feed side for increased efficiency, the product is transported to the product pile with roller conveyors.

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This plant also utilized cyclones and dust collectors to contain unwanted dust emitting from this plant.

ARIA air separation plants are tried and tested in South Africa on 2 separate mining operations providing satisfactory results and reduced operations cost than the conventional DMS plants.

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BALL MILLS

Mining ball mills are large pieces of equipment used in the mineral processing industry to grind various materials into smaller particles. They can be used for both dry and wet grinding processes and are commonly used for grinding materials such as copper, gold, iron ore, and nickel. Here is an overview of the key aspects of mining ball mills:

Key Components of Mining Ball Mills:

Cylindrical Shell:

The mill shell is a cylindrical-shaped vessel, usually made of steel, that rotates on its axis. It contains a grinding medium (usually steel balls) that grind the material as the mill rotates.

Grinding Media (Balls):

Steel balls are commonly used as grinding media in mining ball mills. The size and composition of the balls depend on the material being ground and the desired fineness of the final product.

Feeders:

Feeders are used to introduce the material to be ground into the mill. The material may be fed continuously or intermittently depending on the mill design and process requirements.

Discharge End:

At the discharge end, the ground material exits the mill. The size of the discharge can be controlled by adjusting factors such as the speed of the mill and the size of the openings in the discharge grate.

Motor:

Electric motors are used to drive the rotation of the mill shell. The motor power and size depend on the size and capacity of the mill.

Liners:

Liners are protective coverings inside the mill shell to protect it from wear. They can be made of various materials, including rubber or steel, and are replaceable to extend the life of the mill.

Control System:

Mining ball mills may be equipped with control systems to monitor and control factors such as mill speed, material feed rate, and discharge size. This helps optimize the milling process for efficiency and product quality.

Working Principle:

Material Loading:

The material to be ground is loaded into the mill through a feeder.

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Grinding Media Action:

The mill rotates, causing the grinding media (steel balls) to cascade and grind the material. The grinding action is primarily through impact and abrasion.

Size Reduction:

As the material is ground finer, it passes through the openings in the mill liners and is discharged at the other end. The size reduction is a result of the grinding media and material interactions.

Controlled Process:

The milling process can be controlled by adjusting factors such as the mill speed, material feed rate, and the size and type of grinding media.

Applications in Mining:

Ore Grinding:

Mining ball mills are used to grind ores and other materials for further processing. This is a critical step in the extraction of valuable minerals from the ore.

Mineral Processing:

Ball mills play a crucial role in mineral processing plants, where they are used for grinding various minerals to produce concentrates.

Comminution:

Comminution is the process of reducing the particle size of mined materials, and ball mills are a common method for achieving this.

Gold and Copper Mining:

Ball mills are extensively used in gold and copper mining for the grinding and concentration of extracted materials.

Advantages:

Versatility:

Mining ball mills can handle a wide range of materials, including hard and abrasive substances.

Efficiency:

Properly designed and operated ball mills can be highly efficient for size reduction and mineral liberation.

Scalability:

Ball mills come in various sizes, allowing for scalability to suit the production requirements of different mining operations.

Reliability:

Well-maintained ball mills are reliable and can provide consistent performance over extended periods.

Energy Consumption:

Ball mills can be energy-intensive, especially for large-scale operations, and optimizing energy usage is essential.

Liner Wear:

The liners inside the mill wear over time, impacting efficiency and requiring regular maintenance and replacement.

Control System Complexity:

The control of the milling process can be complex, requiring careful monitoring and adjustment of multiple parameters.

Environmental Impact:

The disposal of used grinding media and mill liners can have environmental implications.

Mining ball mills are essential equipment in the mineral processing industry, and their proper design and operation contribute to the efficiency of mineral extraction and processing plants. Advances in technology and ongoing research continue to improve the efficiency and sustainability of mining ball mills.

GOLD REFINING PLANTS

Gold refining plants are facilities that process and purify gold ore, gold scrap, or other forms of gold to obtain high-purity gold products. The refining process typically involves various chemical and metallurgical techniques to remove impurities and achieve the desired level of purity. Gold refining plants play a crucial role in the production of high-quality gold for various industries, including jewelry manufacturing, electronics, and investment.

Key Components and Processes in Gold Refining Plants:

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Gold Ore Processing (for mined gold):

If the source is mined gold ore, it undergoes initial processing to extract gold-bearing ore. This may involve crushing, grinding, and concentration processes to increase the gold content.

Smelting:

The gold-bearing material is subjected to smelting, where it is heated to high temperatures to melt the gold. This process separates gold from other metals and impurities.

Chemical Refining Processes:

Several chemical processes are used for gold refining, including:

Aqua Regia Process:

Aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, is commonly used to dissolve and separate gold from other metals and impurities.

Miller Process:

This process involves bubbling chlorine gas through molten gold, forming chlorides that are then separated from the gold.

Wohlwill Process:

Electrolysis is employed in the Wohlwill process to refine gold to high purity. Gold is dissolved as an anode, and high-purity gold is deposited on the cathode.

Cupellation:

Cupellation is an ancient method where gold is heated with lead, and the resulting gold and silver alloy is separated from other impurities.

Gold Doré Production:

The refined gold, often in the form of gold doré (an alloy containing gold and silver), is produced as an intermediate product before further purification.

Chemical Analysis:

Precise chemical analysis is conducted to determine the gold content and identify any remaining impurities.

Casting:

The refined gold is cast into bars, granules, or other forms suitable for further processing or sale.

Quality Control:

Quality control measures are implemented to ensure that the refined gold meets industry standards and customer specifications.

Advanced Technologies in Gold Refining:

Electrolytic Refining:

Electrolytic refining utilizes electrolysis to achieve high-purity gold. The metal is dissolved in a solution, and the pure gold is deposited on the cathode.

Inquartation:

Inquartation involves adding silver to the gold before the refining process, facilitating the removal of platinum group metals.

Ion Exchange Resins:

Ion exchange resins can be used to selectively remove impurities from gold solutions.

Solvent Extraction:

Solvent extraction processes can be employed to separate gold from other metals in solution.

Waste Management:

Proper management of waste streams, such as slags and residues, is essential to minimize environmental impact.

Emission Control:

Emission control measures are implemented to address the release of potentially harmful gases or fumes during the refining processes.

Applications:

Jewelry Manufacturing:

High-purity gold from refining plants is used in jewelry manufacturing to produce gold jewelry of various karats.

Electronics Industry:

Refined gold is a critical component in the electronics industry, used for manufacturing connectors, circuit boards, and other electronic components.

Investment and Bullion:

High-purity gold is used for producing investment-grade bullion, coins, and bars for the precious metals market.

Dental Applications:

The dental industry utilizes refined gold for the production of dental crowns, bridges, and other dental restorations.

Challenges and Considerations:

Energy Consumption:

Gold refining processes can be energy-intensive, and efforts are made to optimize energy usage.

Chemical Safety:

The handling of corrosive and toxic chemicals, such as aqua regia, requires strict safety measures and environmental controls.

Environmental Impact:

Proper environmental management practices are crucial to minimize the impact of gold refining activities on air, water, and soil.

Gold refining plants are integral to the gold supply chain, ensuring the production of high-quality gold for various industries. The industry continually explores and adopts advanced technologies to improve efficiency, reduce environmental impact, and meet the stringent quality standards demanded by the market.

SEPARATOR SCREENS

Mineral processing separator screens, also known as vibrating screens or simply screens, are devices used in mineral processing plants to separate particles based on their size and composition. These screens play a crucial role in various stages of the mineral processing circuit, including primary and secondary crushing, grinding, classification, and dewatering. The primary function of separator screens is to efficiently classify and separate minerals into different size fractions. Here's an overview of the key aspects of mineral processing separator screens:

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Types of Mineral Processing Separator Screens:

Vibrating Screens:

Vibrating screens use vibrational motion to separate and classify particles. The screen deck is usually inclined to facilitate material movement and separation. Common types include circular motion screens, linear motion screens, and elliptical motion screens.

Trommel Screens:

Trommel screens are cylindrical drum-shaped screens that rotate to separate materials based on size. They are commonly used for the classification of large-sized materials.

High-Frequency Screens:

High-frequency screens operate at a higher frequency, allowing for finer particle separation. They are often used in dewatering applications and fine screening.

Dewatering Screens:

Dewatering screens are designed to remove excess water from the processed minerals, creating a drier final product.

Inclined Screens:

Inclined screens have a sloped surface, aiding the movement of material along the screen surface and facilitating efficient separation.

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Screen Deck:

The screen deck is the surface on which the material is separated. It may consist of one or multiple layers, each with different sized openings.

Screen Media:

Screen media is the material used to form the openings on the screen deck. Common types include wire mesh, polyurethane, rubber, or perforated plates. The choice of screen media depends on the application and the characteristics of the processed material.

Drive Mechanism:

The drive mechanism provides the motion to the screen deck. It can be an eccentric shaft, vibrator motor, or other types of vibrational devices.

Support Structure:

The support structure holds the screen deck and provides stability. It is designed to withstand the dynamic forces generated during operation.

Springs or Suspensions:

Springs or suspensions are used to isolate the screen from the support structure, allowing for controlled movement and vibration.

Adjustable Settings:

Many screens have adjustable settings, including amplitude, frequency, and inclination, allowing operators to optimize the screening process based on the characteristics of the material.

Working Principle:

Material Feed:

Raw material is fed onto the screen deck, either by gravity or a conveyor belt

Screening:

The screen deck vibrates, causing the particles to move and separate based on size. Smaller particles pass through the openings in the screen, while larger particles are retained on the screen surface.

Classification:

Depending on the screen type and settings, materials are classified into different size fractions. This is essential for downstream processes such as crushing grinding, or further separation.

Dewatering (if applicable):

In the case of dewatering screens, excess water is removed from the material, resulting in a drier final product.

Applications:

Crushing and Screening Circuits:

Separator screens are used in crushing and screening circuits to classify materials into different size fractions before further processing.

Grinding Circuits:

Screens are employed in grinding circuits to separate oversized particles from the ground material.

Classification and Sorting:

Screens are crucial for the classification and sorting of minerals based on size and other characteristics.

Dewatering:

Dewatering screens are used to remove water from minerals, creating a drier final product for storage or transportation.

Benefits:

Efficient Separation:

creens provide efficient and precise separation of particles based on size.

Flexibility:

Different types of screens and adjustable settings offer flexibility to adapt to various material characteristics and processing requirements.

High Capacity:

Vibrating screens, in particular, can handle high-capacity throughput.

Dewatering Capability:

Dewatering screens help reduce the moisture content of the final product

Considerations:

Screen Media Selection:

The choice of screen media should consider the material's abrasiveness, particle size distribution, and other factors.

Maintenance:

Regular maintenance is essential to ensure optimal screen performance. This includes checking for wear, tensioning screen media, and inspecting drive components.

Screening Efficiency:

Proper screen selection and settings are crucial for achieving high screening efficiency.

Mineral processing separator screens are critical components in mineral processing plants, contributing to the efficient classification and separation of minerals. The appropriate selection and operation of separator screens are essential for optimizing the overall performance of the mineral processing circuit.

JAW CRUSHERS

Mineral processing jaw crushers are machines used to reduce large rocks or ore lumps to smaller sizes for further processing in various Industries. They play a crucial role in the primary crushing stage of mineral processing plants. The primary purpose of a jaw crusher is to provide a feed material that can be accepted and processed further downstream, whether in the form of coarse rock, ore, or recycled concrete. Here's an overview of the key aspects of mineral processing jaw crushers:

Key Components and Features:

Jaw Crusher Design:

Jaw crushers typically have a fixed jaw and a movable jaw. The movable jaw is pivoted at the top, and its motion is driven by an eccentric shaft that rotates on the top of the crusher.

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Feed Opening:

The feed opening is the area through which the raw material enters the crusher. The size of the feed opening determines the maximum size of the material that can be accepted by the crusher.

Toggle Plate:

The toggle plate is a mechanism that connects the movable jaw to the frame. It helps in transmitting the crushing force and protecting the crusher from overload by acting as a safety device

Crushing Chamber:

The crushing chamber is the space between the fixed jaw and the movable jaw. The size and shape of the crushing chamber influence the crusher's capacity and product size.

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Adjustable Discharge Setting:

Most jaw crushers have an adjustable discharge setting, allowing operators to control the size of the crushed product. This is achieved by adjusting the distance between the jaws at the discharge Point

Drive Mechanism:

The drive mechanism may include an electric motor, a diesel engine, or other power sources. It provides the energy needed to drive the movable jaw in its reciprocating motion.

Wear Parts:

Jaw crushers have wear-resistant liners and other wear parts, such as jaw plates and side liners, which are replaceable to maintain the crusher's performance over time.

Bearings:

Bearings support the eccentric shaft and the movable jaw. Proper lubrication is essential to minimize wear and prevent premature failure. Working Principle:

Feed Material Intake:

Raw material, such as rock or ore, is fed into the feed opening of the jaw crusher.

Crushing Action:

The movable jaw exerts force on the rock or ore by moving track and forth against the fixed jaw. This crushing action breaks the material into smaller pieces.

Discharge Setting Adjustment:

The adjustable discharge setting allows operators to control the size of the crushed product. Larger material is crushed when the jaws are closer, and smaller material is obtained when the jaws are farther apart.

Product Discharge:

The crushed material exits the crusher through the discharge opening at the bottom of the crushing chamber.

Applications:

Primary Crushing:

Jaw crushers are primarily used for primary crushing in mineral processing plants. They are typically employed in the first stage of the crushing process to reduce the size of large rocks or ores.

Aggregate Processing:

Jaw crushers are widely used in the aggregate industry for crushing various types of rocks, including granite, basalt, and gravel.

Mining Operations:

Jaw crushers are commonly used in mining operations for crushing hard and abrasive materials such as gold ore, copper ore, and iron ore.

Recycling:

Jaw crushers are used in recycling applications to crush recycled concrete or asphalt and produce reusable aggregates.

Advantages:

High Efficiency:

Jaw crushers are known for their high efficiency in crushing hard and abrasive materials.

Versatility:

They can handle a wide range of materials, from hard rock to softer ores and recycled materials.

Adjustable Discharge Setting:

The ability to adjust the discharge setting allows for customization of the crushed product size.

Simple Maintenance:

Jaw crushers have relatively simple maintenance requirements, and wear parts can be easily replaced.

Considerations:

Feed Size:

The size of the feed material must be within the capacity of the crusher's feed opening.

Abrasive Material:

For abrasive materials, proper jaw plate selection and regular maintenance are crucial to maximize the crusher's lifespan.

Operating Costs:

Operating costs, including energy consumption and wear part replacement, should be considered in the overall economic assessment.

Maintenance Schedule:

Regular maintenance, including lubrication, jaw plate replacement, and inspection of wear parts, is essential for optimal performance.

Mineral processing jew crushers are foundational equipment in the mining and mineral processing industry. They are designed to handle a variety of materials and provide reliable and efficient primary crushing. Proper selection, maintenance, and operation of jaw crushers are essential for achieving optimal performance and productivity in mineral processing operations.

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